|Country Profile - UKRAINE||Higher Education & VET Institutions in Ukraine (as of October 2021)|
Area: 603,548 square km
Population: 41.3 million
Official language: Ukrainian
Literacy rate: 99.8%
77,8% - Ukrainians,
17,3% - Russians,
4,9 % - others
Higher Education Institutions types and statistics (2020/21)*:
Colleges (Colleges, Technical schools**, Vocational schools**)
Universities (Universities, Academies, Institutes)
|Total HEIs||619 (1,439 mln students)||338 (0,173 mln students)||281 (1,266 mln students)|
|Public HEI||504 (1,316 mln students)||301 (0,158 mln students)||203 (1,158 mln students)|
|Private HEI||115 (0,123 mln students)||37 (0,015 mln students)||78 (0,108 mln students)|
|International students||60 006||177||59 829|
- 156 909 academic staff: 133 459 Universities’ and 23 450 Colleges’ academic staff
**Technical schools, Vocational schools – VET institutions that offer Junior Specialist study programmes in frame of the higher education system until 2019; since 2020, a new system of education and qualifications operates (see table, page 8).
VET Institutions*** statistics (2019/20)*:
|VET Institutions||Students||Teacher staff|
|Total||723||245 775||information is not available|
*** There is only the public type of ownership of VET institutions in Ukraine
Secondary Education Institutions types and statistics (2019/20)*:
|Secondary Education Institutions||School Students||Teacher staff|
|Total||15 192||4 138 466||439 921|
|Public||14 912||4 098 031||433 939|
|Private||282||40 435||5 982|
*Source: State Statistics Service of Ukraine http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua
**Technical schools, Vocational schools – VET institutions that offer Junior Specialist study programmes in frame of the higher education system until 2019; after 2019, a new system of education and qualifications will operate.
General Secondary Education in Ukriane description at the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine website - at the link
New Ukrainian School Concept - at the link
Pre-school Education in Ukriane description at the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine website - at the link
VET in Ukriane description at the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine website - at the link
Country Fische on Skills anticipation and matching system / approach - country profile (EaP) by ETF (2019) - at the link here.
Higher Education in Ukriane description at the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine website - at the link
Overview of the higher education system in partner countries - Eastern Europe (2017) - at the link
Erasmus+, Capacity building in higher education (CBHE) action Regional report : Eastern Partnership Countries (2020) - at the link
Impact study on capacity building in higher education projects funded in Ukraine by the EU Erasmus+ Programme implemented in the period of 2015-2020: at the link.
The Review "The 2005-2020 Bologna Process in Ukraine: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects" - at the link here.
The European higher education area in 2020 Bologna process implementation report - at the link
Overview of New Opportunities within EU-Funded Programme Erasmus+ 2021-2027 and Participation of Ukrainian organisations in the EU-funded Programme Erasmus+ 2014-2020: at the link.
Report on the Review of the Education Sector in Ukraine: Moving toward Effectiveness, Equity and Efficiency by the World Bank (2019) - at the link
World Bank Project: Ukraine Improving Higher Education for Results - feasibility studies and other relevant documents - at the link
Details are provided in the file and below.
The doc to be downloaded in word format
Bologna Process implementation overview in Ukraine 2005-2021:
In 2005, Ukraine joined the Bologna Process that is a positive step towards integrating Ukrainian higher education into the European Higher Education Area. The Law of Higher Education (2014) is compatible with the Bologna Process (3-cycle HE, ECTS, DS, ESG, NQF implementation) and regulates the following:
- 3-cycle Higher Education (Junior Bachelor (short cycle), Bachelor – Master – PhD)
- Development of National Quality Assurance System in line with The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) incl. National Agency on HE Quality Assurance – NQAA, accreditation, https://en.naqa.gov.ua
- Accreditation of study programmes (curricula) is provided by the NQAA from September 2019 (according to the Law of Education before 2019 accreditation was provided by the Accreditation Commission (advisory body) established by the Ministry of Education and Sciences of Ukraine according to the existing procedure).
- Development of the national higher education standards in compliance with National Qualification Framework (NQF) and ESG
- Providing Diploma Supplement – DS
- National Qualifications Framework 19) and QF LLL (2017) was approved by the Cabinet of Ministries of Ukraine in 2020.
- The NQF with 11 levels of qualifications (based on EQF LLL) was approved by the Cabinet of Ministries of Ukraine in 2011.
- Implementation of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)
- Curricula developed on competence-based and student-centred approaches using Learning Outcomes
- Expansion of autonomy and academic freedom, student governance in HEIs
- Providing academic mobility for students and staff
- National Qualification Agency established, responsible for NQF and Recognition
The cooperation with the European Union within EU-funded Programme in Higher Education, like Tempus, Erasmus Mundus, Jean Monnet and Erasmus+ have a strong impact on the implementation of the higher education reforms in Ukraine.
The Cabinet approved the Concept of the State programme for the development of research infrastructures in Ukraine until 2026 on 14 April 2021 (https://www.kmu.gov.ua/npas/pro-shvalennya-koncepciyi-derzhavnoyi-cilovoyi-programi-rozvitku-doslidnickih-infrastruktur-v-ukrayini-na-period-do-2026-roku-i140421-322).
After the public discussions of the draft Order of the Cabinet “On approval of the Concept of the State programme for the renovation and development of the HEIs’ students hostels network for 2021-2025” finished on 1 September 2020 the document is on the improvement of the MESU to be further agreed with other public authorities (https://mon.gov.ua/ua/news/mon-proponuye-do-gromadskogo-obgovorennya-proyekt-rozporyadzhennya-kmu-pro-shvalennya-koncepciyi-derzhavnoyi-programi-vidnovlennya-ta-rozbudovi-merezhi-gurtozhitkiv-dlya-prozhivannya-studentiv-zakladiv-vishoyi-osviti-na-2021-2025-roki)
The State Programmes foresee the activities list, responsible persons, deadlines, and state funds for their implementation. As a matter of fact, their implementation will start under conditions of the reconsideration of the State Budget 2021.
(2) Situation with the National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance (NAQA).
The MESU has prepared the draft Law On Amendments to the Certain Laws of Ukraine (ref. № 1/12-3604 dated 30.07.2020) and submitted to be agreed by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and other national authorities.
The draft Law concerns the change of the NQAA status and formation procedures.
The key recommendation of the draft Law is to change from a public collegial body status (under the Ministry) to an executive body status. (* In 2013-2014, during the preparation of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education", the possibility of establishing a National Agency as an executive body was considered, but the proposal was rejected by the Ministry of Justice and other authorities - preventing an increase in the number of executive bodies).
Currently, the Ministry itself approves the documents developed by the NAQA concerning the national level activities (e.g., Regulations on accreditation of study programmes, etc.). NAQA funding is carried out from two sources – the State Budget (the chief administrator is the Ministry) and incomings from HEIs (payment of services on accreditation).
Thus, as an executive body, the NAQA becomes a chief administrator of own funding, so it acquires independence in approving decisions and funding, i.e. it becomes more independent from the Ministry. However, it will be provided if the current NAQA formation procedure is maintained – the NAQA members are selected by an international Competition Commission, the NAQA Chairman is elected by the NAQA members and appointed by the Government, the Secretariat staff is appointed by the elected Chairman, and the Secretariat is a public service.
As for the NAQA formation procedure, the provisions on the establishment of an international Competition Commission and the procedure for NAQA members competitive selection, as well as their rotation every 3 years and election of the NAQA Chairman as in the Law On Higher Education have been removed by the draft Law (there is simply NAQA staff appointment by the Government). Provisions on the principles of forming the composition of the NAQA – representation of HEIs, research institutions, employers, students; balance of education fields’ representation; gender balance, etc. as in the Law On Higher Education have been removed by the draft Law. In addition, one important point is a draft Law does not provide NAQA quality assurance according to the ESG as it is in the Law On Higher Education 2014.
In this context, the NQAA really ceases to be an independent organization and does not acting according to the ESG. As of June 2021 this draft Law was postponed and not considered by the Сabinet.
On March 11, 2021, Hearings on accreditation issues and the National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance were conducted in the Verkhovna Rada Committee on Education, Science and Innovation with participation of NEO – Ukraine and HEREs. Issues on accreditation and NAQA activity were discussed by the Parliament’s Members, representatives of the Ministry, NAQA, HEIs, NEO – Ukraine, HEREs. The recommendations of the Hearings emphasized the importance of further implementation of ESG-2015 in Ukraine, ensuring NAQA independence and improving QA activities.
On March 30, 2021 the Law “On amendments to some Laws of Ukraine concerning settlement of some issues of awarding scientific degrees and licensing of educational activity” was adopted by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Parliament). In particular, it cancelled NAQA authority to implement public policy in higher education. At the same time, its authority to accredit specialized scientific councils for the defense of PhD dissertations and the authority of the Ministry of Education and Science to approve decisions on the award of PhD degrees were cancelled. According to the new regulation, the decision of the HEI on awarding a scientific degree doesn’t require approval, but may be cancelled by NAQA due to violations of academic integrity.
On April 14, 2021 a workgroup of Verkhovna Rada Committee on Education, Science and Innovation was created to work out amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education" regarding NAQA status in order to harmonize it with other laws in compliance with ESG-2015 recommendations about its independence and core functions.
The Law with amendments to the Law of Higher Education and Law of Education concerning improvement of educational process in higher education (adopted by the Parliament and signed by the President of Ukraine on January 13, 2020) are compatible with the Bologna Process in general and includes the following key provisions:
- Higher education institutions are allowed to issue a higher education document (Diploma/Degree) under an accredited study programme only. This provision somewhat limits the academic autonomy of institutions, as any higher education documents issued under a non accredited programme will not be accounted in the National Unified Education e-Database and recognized by the state.
- License requirements for conducting educational activities in higher education institutions are supplemented by the requirement to create appropriate conditions for persons with special educational needs. License requirements allow the offer of Junior Bachelor's (higher education short cycle) and Bachelor's degree programmes not only by higher education institutions but also by pre-tertiary vocational institutions (VET).
- License is granted by the Ministry for conducting educational activity on certain higher education level/cycle and not within a specific Program Subject Area (specialty) (as it was in previous version of the Law).
- The List of Fields of Study and Program Subject Areas (specialties) in Higher Education is developed on the basis of the International Standard Classification of Education and approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which will ensure comparison of higher education documents (Diploma/Degrees) and collection of statistics on higher education.
- The contract with the Rector will identify the higher education institution performance indicators (KPI), the achievement of which must be provided by the Rector, as well as the timing and mechanisms of verification of achievement of such targets.
- Introduced dual higher education as full-time education, which provides on-the-job training at enterprises, institutions and organizations for the acquisition of certain qualification (in the amount of 25-60 % of the study programme).
- The higher education institution has the right to decide on the teaching of one, several or all courses, the completion of individual tasks and the conduct of control measures in English, provided that all students who study the respective courses are enough competent in English. If there is a written request from one or more students, the higher education institution provides translation into the Ukrainian.
- The number of qualification levels of the National Qualifications Framework should be consistent with the number of levels of the European Qualifications Framework for LLL (8 levels).
The Law of Pre-Tertiary Vocational Education* (2019) is compatible with the Bologna Process in general and includes the following key amendment to the Law of Higher Education and the Law of Education:
- Introduce a new level of NQF (5th) for qualifications relevant to Pre-Tertiary Vocational Education within VET; therefore NQF includes 11 levels now. Tertiary (Higher) Education consists 5 levels and the Law determinates correspondence between higher education levels, postdoctoral/scientific level (Junior Bachelor – Bachelor – Master – PhD – Doctor of Science) and levels of National Qualification Framework (6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10)
*Law of VET Education is under development now.
The Law of Education (2017) is compatible with the Bologna Process in general and includes the following key provisions:
- Introduce 12-years complete general secondary school within 3 stages – for primary education – on September 1, 2018; for basic secondary school – on September 1, 2022; for field-specific secondary school – on September 1, 2027 (Part XII. CONCLUDING AND TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS).
- Implement European approach to assure right of equal access to education and inclusive learning for people with disabilities (persons with special educational needs) (Article 19, 20).
- Introduce the institute of Education Ombudsman for providing good conditions for realization of the right to education within education system (Article 73).
- Present formal, non-formal and informal education as means of life-long learning (Article 8).
- Implementation of reviewed National Qualification Framework (see Table) – 11 levels of qualifications (0-10) incl. Higher Education (Junior Bachelor (short cycle), Bachelor – Master – PhD) and plus so called 4th or postdoctoral cycle – Doctor of Science (Article 36). Determination of correspondence between educational levels and levels of National Qualification Framework (for Higher education: 6 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 10 levels) (Article 10) (see Table). Introduce Doctor of Art degree in frame of the 3th cycle of Higher Education for artistic qualifications / professions along with PhD degree for other qualifications / professions.
- Introduce definitions for professional and educational qualifications; descriptions of the National Qualification Framework corresponding with EQF LLL; Sectoral Qualifications Frameworks, Qualifications Centres for Learning Outcomes and Qualifications Recognition (including via informal and nonformal education) in line with Lisbon and Bologna processes; National Qualifications Agency for maintaining NQF implementation in particular (Article 34, 35, 36, 38).
- Widen University Autonomy via introducing several legal statuses for HEIs – state-funding institution (present status for state HEIs); non-commercial education institution; commercial education institution (Article 22).
- Establish obligatory correlation between Education Standards and NQF (Article 32).
- QA system novation is Academic Integrity as well as Institutional Accreditation (voluntary procedure by HEI initiative, assessment of quality of educational activity of the HEI) (Article 42, 46).
- Assure Teaching Quality improvement – State provides support to advanced training of State HEIs academic staff via additionally allocated funds from the State Budget and the amount of these funds cannot be less than 2 % of the academic staff’ salary fund (Article 78).
- On the day this Law enters into force, the powers of the members of the NQAA in Higher Education delegated by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, national sectoral academies of sciences, elected by congresses from the representatives of HEIs, Joint Representative Body of all-Ukrainian Association of employers’ organizations, congress of representatives of students are terminated (Part XII. CONCLUDING AND TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS).
- The Ministry provides study programmes accreditation according to the procedure envisaged for accreditation of disciplines and specialities until approval, according to the procedure established by the Law on Education, of the regulations about study programmes accreditation.
- Some key amendment to the Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” (2014):
- Introduce new approach to formation of the NQAA – National Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education is composed on 23 persons appointed by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on the basis of the decision of the Selection Committee following the results of the selection that takes place with due consideration of gender balance and sectoral (field of study) representation principles.
- The composition of the National Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education is formed with safeguarding the representation of no more than 1 person from a Field of Study and includes:
1) 3 persons – selected among representatives of all-Ukrainian employers’ organizations;
2) 2 persons – students of the first or second cycles of HE;
3) no less than 1 representative from among persons who work on a permanent basis at: the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; national sectoral academy of sciences (1 representative per each academy – 5 ones); state HEI; municipal HEI; private HEI. A person may be nominated a candidate to the NQAA via self-nomination also.
- The organization and conduct of the selection of NQAA is done by the Selection Committee that is established by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine as an advisory body for only 3 years in this composition. The members of Selection Committee perform their duties pro bono. The Selection Committee is comprised on 9 persons, 4 of which as international members are delegated from the European Higher Education Area organisations ENQA, EURASHE, EUA, ESU and per 1 person from the following institutions: 1). the Ministry – Yuriy RASHKEVYCH, Deputy Minister, HERE team member; 2). Joint Representative Body of All-Ukrainian Association of Employers; 3). National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; 4). National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine – Volodymyr LUGOVYY, First Vice-President, National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, HERE team member, as a Chairman; 5). national students association of Ukraine that is a member of European Students’ Union (ESU).
- Membership is allowed for persons who have an academic degree and / or academic title or no less than 5 years of work experience in the field except for students’ representatives and international representatives. The decision of the Selection Committee is considered taken if it is supported by the majority of the international members and majority of national members. The work of Selection Committee is organized as sessions, participation for international representatives is allowed with the assistance of electronic videoconferencing. International representatives who take part in a session via videoconferencing confirm results of their voting in writing. The sessions of the Selection Committee are open. Information about the sessions is published on the Ministry’ website. The Selection Committee develops a Regulation on the contest for the selection of NQAA members that is approved by the Cabinet and formulates qualification requirements to candidates, that foresee the availability of an academic degree or professional work experience no less than 5 years, except for students representatives.
- The Selection Committee provided selection procedure and formulated list of NQAA members. Regulation of the Cabinet on NQAA approval (27 December 2018) incl. NQAA members list is placed at the Cabinet website (https://www.kmu.gov.ua/ua/npas/pro-zatverdzhennya-skladu-nacionalnogo-agentstva-iz-zabezpechennya-yakosti-vishchoyi-osviti). HERE team member – Iryna ZOLOTARIOVA is selected NQAA member. During the first official meeting of the NQAA members the NQAA Chairman was elected, ex-Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine Sergiy KVIT took this position. In February 2019 HERE team member – Mychailo WYNNYCKYJ was appointed om position of the Head of the NQAA’ Secretariat – executive body.
12. According to the Law the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine within 1 year from the day of entry into force by this Law in particularly:
- to prepare and submit for consideration by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine a proposal regarding bringing laws of Ukraine in line with this Law;
- to prepare and submit for consideration by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine draft laws about making amendments to the Tax and Customs Codes of Ukraine with a goal to exempt of education and research institutions from taxes, payment of customs duties for educational, scientific / research and production equipment and supply that are moved across the customs border of Ukraine for educational and scientific / research goals (Part XII. CONCLUDING AND TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS).
13. According to the Law of Higher Education, the Ministry of Education and Sciences of Ukraine formed the Scientific and Methodical Commissions (SMCs) in 2016, which developed 236 Higher Education Standards projects by 2020. HEREs provided methodical expertise of 214 projects during 2017-2020 and 135 projects were approved by the Ministry. Established NQAA will providing accreditation taking in account Higher Education Standards according to the Law of Higher Education of Ukraine.
The Law of Higher Education (2014) is in line with Bologna process but finance autonomy will remain limited until appropriate Draft Law on Amendments to Budget Code will passed.
The National Bank of Ukraine adopted the Resolution on the exemption from the mandatory sale of exchange for EU projects that have passed state registration (December 4, 2015, № 863).
Now HEIs cannot manage their own revenues (non-governmental funding), incl. international grants, that is managed by the State Treasury.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (September 2, 2015, № 719) adopted the Regulation on placing revenues of public HEIs and research institutions on bank accounts (incl. international grants) that allow HEIs more flexible to manage grants.
The Law is compatible with the Bologna Process in general and includes the following key provisions:
- Implementation of three cycle structure of Higher Education (Junior Bachelor (short cycle vs Junior Specialist), Bachelor – Master – PhD) and plus so called 4th or postdoctoral cycle – Doctor of Science;
- PhD education is provided by structured education and research programs within Aspirantura (similar with Doctoral School) at HEI or research institutions, 4 years duration;
- Doctor of Sciences’ (postdoctorate) education is provided by Doctorantura of HEI or research institutions (Article 7);
- Determination of correspondence between educational levels, postdoctoral/scientific level (Junior Bachelor – Bachelor – Master – PhD – Doctor of Science) and levels of National Qualification Framework (5 – 6 – 7 – 8 – 9);
- Implementation of ECTS (determination of education programs scope in terms of ECTS credits) and Diploma Supplement (integral part of documents of HE);
- Decrease of student workload from 36 to 30 hours in 1 ECTS credit, and decrease of maximum of teaching workload from 900 to 600 contact hours per year;
- Development of academic mobility, provide maintenance of job place/study place, scholarship/salary in academic mobility period: The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine adopted the Regulation on academic mobility (August 12, 2015, № 579);
- University’ academic autonomy (development new programs incl. interdisciplinary, degree awards, recognition of degrees/diplomas, etc.), organizational autonomy (development of HEI structure, establishment of research and education institutions, innovative productive organizations, clinics, laboratories, etc.), human resources autonomy (direct elections of Rectors by secret ballot, personnel arrangements, foreign scholars and academics employment, tangible reward, etc.) and financial autonomy (international grants for research and education could be placed on accounts in public banks and not only in State Treasury, independently command budget incl. reallocation between budget items, etc.);
- Establishment of National Agency on HE Quality Assurance (NQAA) in the capacity of a public institution; NQAA should be established by the Cabinet (it had to be done till September 6, 2015). NQAA will consist Secretariat for Agency’ activity support and Public Council (25 individuals from different stakeholders – academics, students, employers) for making decisions on QA issues (incl. accreditation of study programs). According to Article 17 of the Law on Higher Education, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine issued a decree about the establishment of the National Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education and approved the rules of this Agency (15 April 2015). The NQAA has not yet started its activities in Ukraine;
- The methods for Quality Assurance are defined by the Law on Higher Education. The procedure for issuing the Certificates of Study Programmes Accreditation by NQAA should be approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine;
- According to the Law on Higher Education, the Higher Education Standard is a set of requirements for the content and results of the educational activities of the higher education institutions and the research institutes at each higher education level within each programme subject area (there are 114 programme subject areas (detailed fields) of education and training);
- The Ministry of Education and Sciences of Ukraine has formed Scientific and Methodical Commissions (SMCs) in March 2016. Each SMC consists of experts in the relevant program subject area, which represent HEIs from over Ukraine. The key objective of SMCs is development of higher education standards according to the Law of Ukraine on Higher Education. Training sessions were initiated by the Ministry of Education and Sciences of Ukraine and performed by Institute of Higher Education, NEO and HERE team with support of British Council and USETI. All in all 430 members of SMC took the trainings on creation of higher education standards in line with new Law and ESG during April 2016;
- SMCs under the Ministry intend to develop higher education standards for each programme subject area (detailed field) taking into account the proposals of sectoral public authorities, industry associations and employers' organizations till September 2016;
- Technical schools and Vocational schools that offer Junior Specialist’ programs (ex-level within HE) will be transfer from Higher Education system into Vocational Education system during 5 years.
Useful information for the higher education institutions on capacity building to implement reforms, including presentations, publications, videorecordings, translations etc. is placed on the Higher Education Reform Experts Team web-page: http://erasmusplus.org.ua/erasmus/ka3-pidtrymka-reform/natsionalna-komanda-ekspertiv-here.html
It is easy to download file with above info and table with Ukrainian Higher Education system description .
education confirming document
PERIOD OF STUDY
(years, ECTS credits)
Doctor of Sciences
(Postdoctoral Academic Degree), Diploma
|3 years||8 level, NQF|
Doctor of Philosophy, PhD
(Academic Degree), Diploma
(30-60 ECTS – education part)
8 level, ISCED 2011
8 level, NQF
(Academic Degree), Diploma
(300-360 ECTS for program in Medicine, Veterinary, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Pediatrics)
7 level, ISCED 2011
7 level, NQF
(Academic Degree), Diploma
6 level, ISCED 2011
6 level, NQF
(Academic Degree), Diploma
5 level, ISCED 2011
5 level, NQF
|Vocational Education and Training - VET||vocational pre-tertiary education||
Vocational Junior Bachelor
120-180 ECTS (based on complete secondary education)
240 ECTS (based on basic secondary education)
Access to higher education
4 level, ISCED 2011
5 level, NQF
|third (upper) level||
2-3 years (based on complete secondary education)
3-4 years (based on basic secondary education)
Access to higher education
4 level, ISCED 2011
4 level, NQF
|second (basic) level||Certificate||
1-1,5 years (based on complete secondary education)
3 years (3-4 based on basic secondary education)
Access to higher education
3 level, ISCED 2011
3 level, NQF
|first (initial) level||Certificate||2 level, NQF|
|Complete Secondary Education||
Fields-specific secondary education
(Upper secondary general education)
Under the implementation from 2018
(3 years since 2027)
Access to higher education
3 level, ISCED 2011
3 level, NQF
Basic secondary education
(Lower secondary general education)
Access to VET
2 level, ISCED 2011
2 level, NQF
|Primary secondary education||4 years||
1 level, ISCED 2011
1 level, NQF
|Preschool education||4 years|